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大学生择业心理咨询如何解决
日期:2020-04-27 13:55:14 来源:www.jnzyxlzx.com

  随着我国社会经济现代化的发展和就业制度的改革,大学生对职业的认识和择业观念发生了很大的变化。如何进行科学的职业生涯教育和职业心理咨询,使大学生选择职业和个人生活发展,选择职业作为人生发展的重要组成部分,这是高校心理咨询的一个重要课题。

  With the development of social and economic modernization and the reform of employment system in China, college students' understanding of occupation and the concept of employment have changed a lot. How to carry out scientific career education and professional psychological consultation, so that college students can choose career and personal life development, choose career as an important part of life development, which is an important subject of psychological consultation in Colleges and universities.

济南心理咨询

  职业咨询是通过心理咨询的方式,为大学生提供知识、自我认识、职业决策、职业准备、面试技巧和职业发展的过程。在职业咨询的过程中,我们根据问题的不同性质采取不同的心理咨询形式。职业咨询常用的方法有四种:

  Career counseling is a process of providing college students with professional knowledge, self-knowledge, career decision-making, career preparation, interview skills and career development through psychological counseling. In the process of vocational consultation, we take different forms of psychological consultation according to the different nature of the problem. There are four commonly used methods of career counseling:

  一、解决问题的心理咨询

  1、 Problem solving counseling

  问题解决职业寻求心理咨询是指心理咨询师通过提供相关信息来澄清问题,帮助当事人处理具体问题或做出决定。这种心理咨询方法可以快速的解决问题,适用于处理由于缺乏关于人或环境的信息而引起的问题。

  Problem solving professional seeking psychological consultation refers to the psychological counselor who provides relevant information to clarify problems and help the parties to deal with specific problems or make decisions. This kind of psychological consultation method can solve problems quickly and is suitable for dealing with problems caused by the lack of information about people or environment.

  例如,在就业的过程中,小张寄出一封申请很多单位,面试后同时由国家机关、国有企业和外资企业三个单位的承认,他很矛盾,不知道去那单位好,到心理咨询咨询。一方面,我们帮助小张分析了他的职业特点、兴趣爱好、个性特点以及影响他职业选择的外部环境。通过一些启发性的问题和测试,小张可以充分了解自己,系统地了解自己的职业方向。另一方面,分析三个工作单位,包括工作特点、工作环境和发展方向等,如在不同的单位,你能从工作中得到什么?通过工作,你能得到满足和成就感,你的工作潜力能得到充分的认识和发挥吗?主要考虑的是工作的满意度和挑战性,他人的认可和欣赏,晋升的机会和奖励,个人的成长和发展,增长知识和技能的机会,是否能实现自己的生活目标和理想,以及工资和其他物质奖励。通过这样的问题解决咨询,张更终做出了自己的选择。咨询的过程是帮助张澄清问题和提供信息,让他自己做决定。

  For example, in the process of employment, Xiao Zhang sent a letter of application to many units. After the interview, it was recognized by the state organs, state-owned enterprises and foreign-funded enterprises at the same time. He was very contradictory and didn't know which unit to go to. He went to the Psychological Consultation Center for consultation. On the one hand, we helped Xiao Zhang to analyze his career characteristics, hobbies, personality characteristics and the external environment that affected his career choice. Through some enlightening questions and tests, Xiao Zhang can fully understand himself and systematically understand his career direction. On the other hand, analyze three work units, including work characteristics, work environment and development direction. For example, in different units, what can you get from your work? Through work, you can get satisfaction and sense of achievement, can your work potential be fully recognized and exerted? The main considerations are job satisfaction and challenge, recognition and appreciation of others, and promotion opportunities And rewards, personal growth and development, opportunities to increase knowledge and skills, whether they can achieve their life goals and ideals, as well as wages and other material rewards. Through such consultation, Zhang finally made his own choice. The consultation process is to help Zhang clarify problems and provide information so that he can make his own decisions.

  第二,培养择业的心理指导能力

  Second, cultivate the ability of psychological guidance in job selection

  择业心理指导的基于能力的培养不仅是解决当事人的具体问题,但也培养决策能力和其他各方的适应性,从而为毕业生创造条件解决问题本身。经过一定的心理疏导过程,当事人不仅面临着需要解决的问题,而且还学会了解决问题的方法,可以用这种方法来适应未来的需要。这种咨询的是职业的能力要求和影响个人发展的内在因素。

  The ability-based cultivation of career guidance is not only to solve the specific problems of the parties, but also to cultivate the decision-making ability and adaptability of other parties, so as to create conditions for graduates to solve the problem itself. After a certain psychological counseling process, the parties not only face the problems to be solved, but also learn the methods to solve the problems, which can be used to meet the needs of the future. This kind of consultation focuses on the professional ability requirements and the internal factors affecting personal development.

  除了个别辅导外,能力培养心理辅导大多在大学生群体心理辅导中进行。在群体心理训练过程中,引导学生树立正确的职业理想,根据自己的客观现实进行职业设计,合理规划职业生涯,帮助大学生提高心理素质。对相关的人际交往能力、管理能力、口头表达能力、团队精神等能力进行专门的心理培训。团体心理训练等“不打不相识”,落在“信任”、“即兴演讲”,“抑制”,“显示”,“汪洋一艘船”,“职业规划”和“假面试”、“模拟工程建设项目”,等等,目的在于训练的能力,同时在团体心理训练的过程中学习解决问题的方法,借鉴其他学生的长处。心理训练和能力的提高是一个长期的过程,需要学生在日常的学习和生活中自觉锻炼和培养。

  In addition to individual counseling, the ability training counseling is mostly carried out in the group counseling of college students. In the process of group psychological training, we should guide students to set up correct career ideal, design their career according to their objective reality, plan their career reasonably, and help them improve their psychological quality. Special psychological training should be carried out for the related professional abilities of interpersonal communication, management, oral expression and team spirit. Group psychological training and so on "don't fight and don't know each other", fall in "trust", "impromptu speech", "inhibition", "display", "Wang Yang a ship", "career planning" and "false interview", "simulation engineering construction project", etc., the purpose is to train the ability, at the same time, in the process of group psychological training, learn to solve problems, learn from the strengths of other students. Psychological training and ability improvement is a long-term process, which requires students to consciously exercise and cultivate in their daily study and life.

  三、职业发展心理咨询

  3、 Career development counseling

  这种方法认为职业发展是一个持续的过程,而不是一个单一的目标导向的职业选择。教练关注的是一系列的决定和适应。顾问除了培养各种决策技能和适应能力外,还能增强双方的自我认识,将职业选择与个人发展结合起来,考虑各种可能的选择和发展道路。

  This approach considers career development to be a continuous process rather than a single goal oriented career choice. The coach focuses on a series of decisions and adaptations. In addition to developing various decision-making skills and adaptability, consultants can also enhance self-awareness of both sides, combine career choice with personal development, and consider various possible choices and development paths.

  如今,大学生在择业方面变得更加独立,不再依赖父母和老师。因此,应该鼓励他们使用科学手段来尽可能多地了解自己。在择业的过程中,每个人的需要、兴趣、价值观、能力、气质、个性等心理特征都需要考虑如何与职业相匹配。霍兰德是美国的职业指导专家,他提出的职业指导理论在世界上影响很大。他相信有特定个性的人会适应特定的职业。如果每个人都能识别出自己相应的职业人格,他就会获得的成就感和满足感。人格可以分为一定的类型,职业和人格也可以分为相应的类型。目前,人格与社会的职业类型可分为现实型、研究型、艺术型、社会型、管理型和常规型六种类型。在职业发展心理咨询中,运用心理测量软件“职业能力倾向”对大学生的职业兴趣、职业价值观、职业人格进行测试,帮助大学生对职业发展方向做出正确的判断。

  Nowadays, college students have become more independent in their career choice and no longer rely on their parents and teachers. Therefore, they should be encouraged to use scientific means to understand themselves as much as possible. In the process of choosing a job, everyone's needs, interests, values, abilities, temperament, personality and other psychological characteristics need to consider how to match the occupation. Holland is a famous career guidance expert in the United States. His career guidance theory has a great influence in the world. He believes that people with specific personalities will adapt to specific occupations. If everyone can identify their own professional personality, they will get the greatest sense of achievement and satisfaction. Personality can be divided into certain types, occupation and personality can also be divided into corresponding types. At present, the professional types of personality and society can be divided into six types: realistic type, research type, artistic type, social type, management type and conventional type. In the process of career development psychological consultation, we use the psychological measurement software "vocational ability tendency" to test college students' professional interests, professional values and professional personality, so as to help college students make a correct judgment on the direction of career development.

  例如,今年的毕业生小李更近一直有点心烦意乱,眼看着考研的日子就要来临,但他却不能平静下来复习,心里一直在想,“万一考试了,又找不到工作呢?”这种想法越来越强烈,他吃不下饭,也睡不着觉。后来他到学校咨询举行了磋商,做了一些心理分析和职业能力倾向测验,结合职业人格特征和职业价值观,一行的“如果你承认毕业和找到一份好工作,你放弃”选择让他看到考研的重要的位置在我的心里,以解决焦虑的心。咨询的是让小李全面了解自己,将职业选择与个人发展结合起来,做出自己的选择。

  For example, Xiao Li, a graduate of this year, has been a little upset recently. Seeing the coming of postgraduate entrance examination, he can't calm down to review. He has been thinking, "in case of an exam, he can't find a job?" the idea is getting stronger and stronger. He can't eat or sleep. Later, he went to the school counseling center for consultation, and did some psychoanalysis and vocational aptitude tests. Combined with professional personality characteristics and professional values, the last line of "if you admit graduation and find a good job, you give up" chose to let him finally see the important position of postgraduate entrance examination in my heart to solve the anxiety. The key point of consultation is to let Xiao Li fully understand himself, combine career choice with personal development, and make his own choice.

  四、自我发展心理咨询

  4、 Self development counseling

  自我发展心理咨询方法注重个人内在素质的发展和提高,强调通过形成完整的自我概念,积极创造自我发展前景的目标。职业生涯咨询不是告诉咨询对象该做什么,而是在充分尊重大学生内在素质的前提下,培养当事人积极的自我价值,从而为自己的未来负责。

  The method of self-development psychological consultation focuses on the development and improvement of personal internal quality, and emphasizes the goal of actively creating the prospect of self-development by forming a complete professional self-concept. Career counseling is not to tell the consulting object what to do, but to cultivate the positive self-worth of the parties under the premise of fully respecting the internal quality of college students, so as to be responsible for their own future.

  以上是济南心理咨询小编为大家介绍的相关内容,想要了解更多内容,欢迎访问网站:http://www.jnzyxlzx.com

  The above is the relevant content introduced by Jinan psychological consultation group. To learn more, please visit the website: http://www.jnzyxlzx.com


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