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社会性心理孤独与哪些因素有哪些?
日期:2017-06-03 11:13:34 来源:www.jnzyxlzx.com

在现实生活中几乎所有人都逃脱不了孤独的痛苦,只不过程度不同而已。没有人永远孤独,却有人长期孤独。一般而言,短暂或偶然的孤独不会造成心理行为紊乱,但长期或严重的孤独会引发某些情绪障碍,降低人的心理健康水平。孤独感还会增加与他人和社会的隔膜与疏离,而隔膜与疏离又会强化人的孤独感,久之势必导致疏离的个体人格失常。

In real life, almost everyone can not escape the pain of loneliness, but the extent is different. No one is lonely forever, but some people are lonely for a long time. Generally speaking, short or accidental loneliness does not cause mental disorder, but long-term or severe loneliness can cause certain emotional disorders and lower people's mental health. Loneliness will also increase the separation and alienation from others and society, while separation and alienation will strengthen people's sense of loneliness, which will inevitably lead to alienation of individual personality disorder.

孤独作为人类社会特有的一种心理现象,其影响因素是多方面的。人们一般从环境因素,个体差异变量及背景特点等几个因素来考察孤独的原因。

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As a unique psychological phenomenon in human society, loneliness is influenced by many factors. People from the environmental factors, individual differences, variables and background characteristics of several factors to study the reasons for loneliness.

首先,与孤独有关的环境因素。

First, the environmental factors associated with loneliness.

孤独虽然是一种主观个人体验,然而它的产生与发展显然与个体所处的社交环境和个体的社会关系状况有着密切的联系。当人处在孤单、陌生、封闭、不和谐或突遇挫折的客观状态时,就极易诱发人的孤独感。也有人认为引起孤独的社会关系,既可以是数量上的,也可以是质量上的。比如,朋友太少时不足以满足交往需要;朋友虽多,但关系大多浮在表面,不能倾心交谈。其中社会关系质量对孤独的影响更大。

Although loneliness is a subjective personal experience, its emergence and development are closely related to individual social environment and individual social relations. When people in the objective state alone, strange, closed, not harmonious or encountered setbacks, it is easy to induce a person's loneliness. It is also argued that social relations that lead to loneliness can be quantitative or qualitative. For example, when a friend is too few, he is not enough to meet the need of communication; while friends are many, the relationship is mostly on the surface, and can not talk freely. Among them, the quality of social relations has more influence on loneliness.

其次,与孤独有关的人格特征。

Secondly, the personality characteristics related to loneliness.

在深入探索孤独的影响因素时,人们越来越强调个人与人格因素的作用。众多的研究结果发现,孤独与人格和个体差异变量有着密切关系。影响到人们对其社交情景或社会关系状况的知觉与评价,影响人们对其自身处境的理解,进而影响到人们的孤独感。

When exploring the influencing factors of loneliness, more and more emphasis is placed on the role of personality and personality factors. Many studies have found that loneliness is closely related to personality and individual differences. It influences people's perception and evaluation of their social situations or social relations, influences people's understanding of their own situation, and then influences people's sense of loneliness.

面对同样的人际情景,有的人可能不会感到孤独,或孤独的程度较低;而有的人可能会感到孤独,或者孤独的程度较强。当个体的人际关系缺失时,有的人可能会将此视为一种挑战,或通过发展新的社交关系改变现状,或学会了愉快的独处;而有的人可能易于感到孤独或持续感到孤独。因此,人格因素是孤独与环境的中介变量,也是孤独的直接原因。

Faced with the same interpersonal situation, some people may not feel lonely or less lonely; while others may feel lonely or more solitary. When the individual relationships are missing, some people may see this as a challenge, or through the development of new social relations to change the status quo, or learn happily alone; and some people may feel lonely or easy to feel lonely. Therefore, the personality factor is the intermediary variable of loneliness and environment, and is also the direct cause of loneliness.

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